Health, Alcohol, Drugs and Substance Abuse Edu Test Answers

What is the active chemical compound in alcohol?
Ethanol is one of the active chemical compounds in alcohol. Ethanol is the part of the drink that is making it a drug.

What are the various names for alcohol?
1. Ethanol
2. Ethyl alcohol

What are three types of alcohol?
Ethyl, Isopropyl, and Methanol (Alcoholic beverages, rubbing alcohol, fuel)

What type of alcohol is used for sterilizing?

What type of alcohol is used as an antiseptic and can cause gastrointestinal distress as well as damage to the lungs?
Isoproply alcohol (aka Isopropaol, rubbing alcohol)

What type of alcohol is found in hard liquor, beer, and wine?

What type of alcohol can be consumed with any degree of safety?
ethyl alcohol

What type of alcohol is used as fuel?

What type of alcohol is ethyl alcohol with additives (methanol or acetone) to make it undrinkable (used industrially as a solvent
denatured alcohol

What type of alcohol is found in cleaning products, shellac and is used to make formaldehyde and is toxic?
methyl alcohol (aka methanol, wood alcohol)

What type of alcohol is made from the molasses of beets and is used in lacquer, tanning products, film production)
butyl alcohol (aka butanol)

What type of drug is alcohol classified as?
depressant, a substance that slows down the central nervous system and causes chemical changes in the brain.

Describe the effect of a depressant on the central nervous system.
* Depressants are a type of drug that slows down the central nervous system causing chemical changes.
* It can cause slurred speech, sluggish body movements, Blackouts (Memory Loss) and interfere with the ability (inability) to think clearly.
* It impacts the cerebral cortex. The psychological restraint that keeps people from taking dangerous risks, aka inhibition, is lowered.
* Alcohol also effects the cerebellum which controls balance and movement. It can cause sleepiness, slow breathing, and a lower body temperature.

What is a black-out?
A blackout is a period of time that the drinker cannot recall. Other people may recall seeing the drinker talking, waling, and seemingly in control. The following day, however, the drinker may have no memory of some events form the day before.

What part of the body is affected during a black-out?

What are some symptoms of a depressant drug, such as alcohol?
1. slows the heart rate
2. slows breathing
3. can put some of the body systems to sleep
4. causes changes in feelings, emotions, and rational thinking.

Define Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC).
Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the percentage of alcohol that is in a person's blood. It depends on the amount of blood in the system and the amount of alcohol(consumed) circulating in one's bloodstream.
Blood alcohol concentration is the amount of alcohol in the blood expressed as the percentage of alcohol in a deciliter of blood, used as a measure of intoxication.

Define intoxication. / What is intoxication?
Intoxication is the state in which a person's mental and physical abilities are impaired by alcohol or another substance.

When does intoxication occur?
How does alcohol cause intoxication?
This is caused by when people drink alcohol faster than the body can break it down into harmless compounds.

What is the legal intoxication level in the US?
0.08 BAC

What is the legal limit of intoxication for someone over 21?

What is the legal limit of intoxication for someone under 21?

Compare the BAC that represents the legal limit for DUI with the BAC at which driving is first impaired.
The legal limit for DUI is at 0.08 and the driving at first impaired is at 0.02.

Driving under the influence
a legal offense that occurs when a person has driven with a blood alcohol concentration over 0.08; a criminal offense in most states; also known ad driving while intoxicated. (DWI)

term for the uncomfortable physical symptoms caused by excessive alcohol consumption.

List at least 10 possible symptoms for a hangover.
List at least ten possible symptoms of a hangover.
1. tiredness
2. headache
3. muscle aches
4. nausea and vomiting
5. dizziness and a feeling that the room is spinning
6. increased sensitivity to light and sound
7. difficulty sleeping
8. thirst
9. shakiness
10. depression, anxiety, and irritability
11. difficulty concentrating

Identify 4 factors that influence the level of blood alcohol concentration in an individual’s bloodstream.
Identify four factors that influence the level of blood alcohol concentration in an individual's bloodstream.
The amount of alcohol consumed,
1. The rate of consumption - the liver can only process about 1/2 to 1 ounce of alcohol per hour.
2. Gender (Male or female) - the liver is more efficient at metabolizing in males and a larger portion of alcohol is metabolized before it reaches the stomach.
3. Size of drink - about how much is in one shot, or one glass of wine, or one can of beer.
4. body weight -this satisfies your liver already, but more than that doesn't let the liver turn the alcohol into harmless compounds and you get intoxicated.
5. food consumption - when drinking alcohol, food in stomach slows the absorption of alcohol.
6. ethnicity

Why does alcohol consumption reduce a person's inhibition?
Drinking alcohol messes with the function of the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex's job is to think and go through a normal though process. When the cerebral cortex isn't working, it makes it harder for a person to think about the consequences of their actions, leading to the decrease in the psychological restraint that keeps people from taking dangerous risks, or inhibition. The psychological restraint that discourages people from engaging in dangerous behaviors. It gives you a kind of "drunken courage".

Why is drinking a lot of alcohol in a relatively short period of time overwhelming for the body?
Your body can't oxidize the alcohol fast enough. When drinking a lot of liquids in a short amount of time, the body can get overwhelmed easily with the substance and it causes the brain's chemicals to change. It causes the people to not be able to think clearly, quickly, or effectively. It can lead to memory loss or "blacking out." It sometimes slows down a person's breathing and their body temperature, which could lead to life-threatening situations.

Blood alcohol concentration and Gender:
* Because women tend to have more body fat and less water in their tissues than men of the same weight, they will become more intoxicated after drinking the same amount of alcohol.
* Women have half as much alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that breaks down alcohol in the stomach before it reaches the bloodstream and the brain, as men.

The chemical transformation of food and other substances in the body into energy and wastes.

Absorption and metabolism
* About 20% of alcohol diffuses through the stomach lining into the bloodstream.
* The other 80% passes through the lining of the upper third of the small intestine.
* The concentration of the alcohol; quantity consumed; amount of food in stomach; pylorospasm (spasm of the pyloric valve in the digestive system); your metabolism, weight, and BMI; and your mood all affect the absorption of alcohol.
* Wine and beer are absorbed more slowly than distilled beverages.
* Champagne and carbonated drinks are absorbed more rapidly.
* The more alcohol you consume, the longer it takes to absorb it. Alcohol also irritates the digestive system.
* The pyloric valve controls the release of stomach contents into the intestine.
* Carbonated beverages cause the valve to relax and empty the stomach contents more rapidly.
* High intakes of alcohol cause pyloric spasms that prevent the stomach contents from emptying.
* If the irritation continues, it can cause vomiting.

One drink:
The amount of a beverage that typically contains about 0.6 ounce of alcohol; also called a standard drink.

Proof value
two times the percentage of alcohol, by volume, in an alcoholic beverage; a "100-proof" beverage is 50% alcohol by volume

What is one drink equivalent to?
A standard drink contains 14 grams of pure alcohol
5 oz wine = 12 oz beer = 1.5 oz hard liquor

What are the different amount of drinks equal to?
A 12 oz beer, 5 oz wine and a shot all have equal amounts of alcohol

How much beer counts as one drink?
12 ounces, which has 0.48 ounces of actual alcohol

How much wine counts as one drink?
5 ounces, which has 0.5 ounces of actual alcohol

How much hard liquor counts as one drink?
1.25, which has 0.5 ounces of actual alcohol

How much alcohol does beer contain?
3-6% by volume

How much alcohol does wine contain?
4-24% by volume

How much alcohol does distilled spirits (whiskey, vodka, gin)
40-50% (80-100 proof)

At what rate is alcohol processed by the liver?
1 drink per hour

Describe how alcohol impacts the central nervous system, and how these effects may lead to increased accidents and violence.
Alcohol slows down the central nervous system, which has multiple effects on the body such as a decrease in reaction time, difficulty coordinating movements, and a decreased ability to use good judgement. It impacts a person's thought process which means that they might not be thinking clearly when driving or doing other things resulting in accidents and violence.

Define binge drinking.
* Binge drinking the consumption of large (excessive) amount of alcohol in a short amount of time.
* Pattern of drinking alcohol that brings BAC to 0.08 gram-percent or above.
* Periodically drinking alcohol to the point of sever intoxication: For women, binge drinking is considered having 4 or more drinks and for men it is 5 or more consumed within a period of about 2 hours.

Describe alcohol poisoning.
Alcohol poisoning is a result of binge drinking. Binge drinking in a short period of time. Alcohol poisoning is a medical emergency that occurs when a high BAC suppresses the central nervous system, and which is characterized by unconsciousness, low blood pressure and body temperature, difficulty breathing, and possible death.

What are symptoms associated with alcohol poisoning?
Loss of understanding, impaired sensations, unconsciousness, impaired mobility, vomiting, little comprehension of self, depressed breathing, blue-tinged skin, low body temperature

What should you do for someone who has alcohol poisoning?
Call 911, stay with the person until help arrives, roll them onto their sides

At what BAC does alcohol poisoning start?

Can you describe three long term effects of alcohol on the body?
Brain: destroys nerve cells, impairs memory, and ability to concentrate
Liver: interferes with liver's ability to breakdown fats, fills liver with fat scar and tissue
Heart: increases blood pressure and causes irregular heartbeat, builds up fatty deposits in heart muscle

List at least four long-term consequences that can result from regular consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol.
cardiovascular problems, including a irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, and heart attacks; gastrointestinal problems, including damage to the stomach and pancreas; some types of cancer; cirrhosis or a buildup of scar tissue in the liver.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Group of possible behavioral, mental, or serious physical symptoms and mental birth defects caused by a woman's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.

When is it most dangerous for a pregnant woman to drink?
* Alcohol consumption during the first trimester, which may affect organ development; alcohol consumed during the last trimester may affect CNS development.
* An estimated 40,000 infants in the United States are affected by FASDs each year.

Why is it critical for pregnant women to avoid alcohol during their pregnancy?
Pregnant women who drink alcohol pass the alcohol to the baby. It can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). It can cause many mental and physical birth defects such as poor growth, decreased muscle tone and poor coordination, delayed development and problems with thinking, speech, movement, and social skills, heart defects, and facial defects.

Potential Complications for a Child Affected by FAS
Short attention span, ADD/ADHD, hyperactivity, poor impulse control, anger management, anxiety, mental development delay, below average IQ, vision and hearing problems

Analyze how underage drinking can interfere with your personal relationships, school and work responsibilities, and physical health.
Drinking underage can cause physical problems like hangovers, illness, and injuries. It can cause school problems like more absences, difficulty focusing, or declining or failing grades. Family and social problems like restrained relationships or feeling like you have let you family down may result. There would also be legal problems for illegal consumption of alcohol like a suspended driver license.

What is alcohol dependence or alcoholism?
* When an alcoholic's body requires alcohol to function. A disease in which a person is completely dependent on alcohol. Progressive, chronic disease involving a mental and physical need for alcohol.
* Alcoholics: Physically and psychologically addicted to alcohol
* Alcoholic can't control their drinking. Drink when they know they are harming themselves and others.

Alcohol dependence:
* a pathological use of alcohol or impairment in functioning due to alcohol; characterized by tolerance and withdrawal symptoms
* Psychological and/or physical need for beverage alcohol- characterized compulsive use, tolerance and physical dependence manifest by withdrawal syndrome.

What are 3 stages of becoming an alcoholic?
Tolerance, dependence and addiction are the three stages of alcoholism:
1. Tolerance (Stage 1 of alcoholism): Use alcohol to relax and relieve stress, soon they need it to cope with daily life, person begins to lie or make excuses about drinking
2. Dependence (Stage 2 of alcoholism): body develops a need for more and more alcohol, drinker may be absent from school or work, but denies there is a problem
3. Addiction (Stage 3 of alcoholism): problem is clear to others, drinkers body is strongly addicted, drinking is out of control

Can you explain why tolerance is dangerous and how it could lead to dependence and/or addiction?
Tolerance allows the drinker's body to need increasingly larger amounts to have the original effect-more and more is not okay and leads to dependence or a chemical need for alcohol and even addiction where the drinker no longer has control

Name six warning signs of alcoholism.
1. Drinking to deal with anger.
2. Changing friends, personal habits, and interests.
3. Being defensive about drinking. Feeling depression.
4. Drinking more for the same "high".
5. Drinking alone. Drinking to get drunk.
6. Experiencing memory loss as a result of drinking.

What type of drinker has:
* One drink a day or less on average for women
* Two drinks or less per day on average for men
* Doesn't interfere with their daily life or health
ANSWER: moderate drinker

What type of drinker:
* is physically and psychologically addicted to alcohol
ANSWER: alcoholics

What are some differences between moderate drinkers and alcoholics?
Moderate Drinkers:
* 1-2 drinks
* Know limits, when to stop
* Respect alcohol
* Respect non-drinkers
* Social drinker

Alcoholic Drinkers:
* Drink to become drunk
* Pass out
* Use alcohol to solve problems
* Pressure others
* Manipulative
* Isolated often loud, angry, violent, or silent

What type of drinker:
* results in negative consequences
* is psychologically dependent on alcohol
* isn't physically addicted to alcohol.
ANSWER: problem drinker

What are some symptoms of being an alcoholic?
* Very high tolerance for alcohol
* Periods of memory loss (blacking out)
* Withdraw symptoms like hallucinations and cognitive disruption when drinking stops
* Continuing to drink despite serious problems with family or job responsibilities and physical, mental, or social health

Signs of problems with alcohol
1. Drinking alone or secretively
2. Using alcohol deliberately and repeatedly to perform or get through difficult situations
3. Feeling uncomfortable on occasions when alcohol is not available
4. Escalating alcohol consumption beyond an already established drinking pattern
5. Consuming alcohol heavily in risky situations, such as before driving
6. Getting drunk regularly or more frequently than in the past
7. Drinking in the morning or at other unusual times

Short-term effects of alcohol
* Drinking depresses the central nervous system (CNS).
* Drinking leads to dehydration and headache.
* Alcohol irritates the gastrointestinal system.
* Excessive drinking can lead to a hangover.
* Alcohol use plays a significant role in the types of injuries people experience.
* Alcohol influences one's ability to make good decisions about sex because it lowers inhibitions.
* Alcohol is a key factor in many rapes and in domestic violence.
* Alcohol contributes to weight gain; the freshman 15.
* Alcohol, used either alone or in combination with other drugs, can lead to alcohol poisoning (also known as acute alcohol intoxication).

Long-term effects of alcohol
* Even moderate drinking can have negative effects on the nervous system.
* Alcohol affects the cardiovascular system.
* One of the most common -diseases related to alcohol abuse is liver disease. (Cirrhosis Alcoholic hepatitis)
* Alcohol is considered a carcinogen
* Alcohol abuse also leads to:
* Inflammation of the pancreas
* Interference with immunity
* Affects sleep
* Blocked absorption of calcium

Alcohol Abuse:
* The use of alcohol to a degree that causes physical damage, impairs functioning, or results in behavior harmful to others
* Deliberate or unintentional use of beverage alcohol which results results in any degree of physical, mental, emotional, or social impairment of the user, the users family, or society in general

Causes of alcohol abuse and alcoholism:
* Biological and family factors:
* Alcoholism is 4 to 8 times more common among individuals who have a family history of alcoholism.

Social and cultural factors:
* Social pressure
* Family attitude toward drinking

What are the stages of substance abuse?
1. Experimentation (how early you start drinking)
2. Regular use
3. Tolerance
4. Dependence and addiction

What is one way to prevent alcohol abuse?

What is refusal and ways to use it?
* Developing and practicing refusal skills can help when you are offered alcohol
* Some ways: Blaming parents, have game or practice tom, a possible future in politics

State five ways to refuse if a friend offers alcohol to you.
1. Buy yourself time.
2. Give good reasons why you choose not to drink.
3. State the consequences that could result if you drink.
4. Say no firmly.
5. Walk away.

Delirium Tremens (the DTs)
* a state of confusion brought on by the reduction of alcohol intake in an alcohol-dependent person; other symptoms are sweatin, trembling, anxiety, hallucinations, and seizures
* severe syndrome which is characterized by confusion, delusions, agitated behavior, and hallucinations (caused by alcohol withdrawal)

a false perception that does not correspond to external reality, such as seeing visions or hearing voices that are not there

What are drugs?
Substances that cause a physical or psychological change

What is a drug addiction?
A chronic disease that involves ongoing use of a drug regardless of harmful effects.

What are the four stages of substance abuse?
Experimentation, regular use, tolerance, and dependence and addiction

What percent of people have tried alcohol at some point during their lifetime?

What percent of the population drink on a daily basis?

What percent of the adult population are classified as regular drinkers?


Post a Comment