Health Alcohol Drug Chapter Test Answers 1

Drinking alcohol can cause dehydration, which makes the blood hypertonic. Which option best describes the consequences of this hypertonic blood?


A: Hypertonic blood draws water out of the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypotonic. This, in turn, makes the interstitial fluid lose water to the cells.
B: Hypertonic blood forces water into the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypotonic. This, in turn, makes the interstitial fluid lose water to the cells.
C: Hypertonic blood draws water out of the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypertonic. This, in turn, draws water out of the cells.
D: Hypertonic blood will lose water to the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypertonic. This, in turn, causes water to move into the cells.

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Hypertonic blood draws water out of the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypotonic. This, in turn, makes the interstitial fluid lose water to the cells.

Drinking alcohol makes the blood hypertonic. Which option best describes the consequences of this hypertonic blood?


A: Hypertonic blood will lose water to the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypertonic. This, in turn, causes water to move into the cell.
B: Hypertonic blood draws water out of the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypertonic. This, in turn, draws water out of the cells.
C: Hypertonic blood forces water into the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypotonic. This, in turn, makes the interstitial fluid lose water to the cells.
D: Hypertonic blood draws water out of the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypotonic. This, in turn, makes the interstitial fluid lose water to the cells.

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Hypertonic blood draws water out of the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypertonic. This, in turn, draws water out of the cells.

The alcohol flush response is caused by a(n) __________.


A: deficiency of neurotransmitters in the liver which contributes to insufficient breakdown of alcohol molecules
B: an enzyme that fails to break down alcohol molecules in the liver during the metabolic process
C: inability for catalase to metabolize sufficient quantities of alcohol in the brain
D: insufficient quantity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomach

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an enzyme that fails to break down alcohol molecules in the liver during the metabolic process

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) indicates that approximately __________ college students drink alcohol and __________ of students who drink engage in binge drinking.


A: two out of five; one-fourth
B: one out of four; half
C: two out of three; one-third
D: four out of five; half

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four out of five; half

An alcohol-risk personality has been described as an individual who has an inherited predisposition toward alcohol abuse, and who __________.


A: has a pre-existing psychological disorder such as anxiety or depression
B: is impulsive, prefers taking high risks, and is emotionally unstable
C: is methodical, cautious, and controlling
D: scores high on the five-factor traits of neuroticism, extroversion, and openness to experience

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is impulsive, prefers taking high risks, and is emotionally unstable

The reciprocal-influence model suggests that adolescents begin drinking as a result of __________.


A: social expectations that one should drink in order to be a member of one's reciprocal culture
B: an attempt to reduce pressures associated with transitioning to the responsibilities of adult life
C: expectations that using alcohol will increase their popularity and acceptance by their peers
D: an expectation that they will be seen as more masculine by engaging in an activity that is associated with older adults

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expectations that using alcohol will increase their popularity and acceptance by their peers

The tension-reduction causal model is difficult to accept as a sole explanatory hypothesis for alcohol use because __________.


A: over time, most individuals who abuse alcohol do not receive tension-reducing benefits when they drink
B: low rates of alcohol abuse and dependence are found with individuals who score high on measures of hypervigilance, a trait highly correlated with the subjective experience of tension
C: most individuals who experience extreme levels of tension and who are in high-tension occupations tend to have lower levels of substance abuse and dependence
D: if tension-reduction were the main factor, one would expect substance-abuse disorder to be far more common since alcohol tends to reduce tension for most people who use it

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if tension-reduction were the main factor, one would expect substance-abuse disorder to be far more common since alcohol tends to reduce tension for most people who use it

The drug naltrexone is used to treat alcohol use by __________.


A: inducing uncomfortable body reactions such as itching, hot flashes, and belching
B: reducing the craving for alcohol by blocking its pleasure-producing effects
C: stabilizing brain chemistry during alcohol withdrawal
D: causing violent vomiting following the ingestion of alcohol

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reducing the craving for alcohol by blocking its pleasure-producing effects

Approximately __________ percent of people in the United States meet criteria for alcohol use disorder at some point in their lifetimes.


A: 30
B: 5
C: 15
D: 1

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30

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines heavy episodic drinking as __________.


A: the consumption of six or more alcoholic drinks on at least one occasion at least once per month
B: the consumption of six or more alcoholic drinks within 3 hours or less at least three times per month
C: the consumption of alcohol to the point of passing out at least twice per month
D: a drinking pattern defined by the consumption of six or more drinks in a 4-hour-or-less time period at least once per week

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the consumption of six or more alcoholic drinks on at least one occasion at least once per month

Barney, age 50, drank heavily for the past 30 years. He has now been sober for one year. Since being sober, he has shown difficulty with remembering recent conversations with family and coworkers, cannot recall the names of people he has met in the past 6 months, and appears confused and disoriented. What DSM-5 alcohol-related disorder is consistent with these observations about Barney?


A: delirium tremens
B: alcohol abuse syndrome
C: alcohol-related withdrawal syndrome
D: alcohol amnestic disorder

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alcohol amnestic disorder

Martin began drinking alcohol during college. He drinks daily. Initially, he drank a couple of beers each evening. He now consumes six to 12 bottles of beer each evening. When asked why he drinks so much, Martin replied, "It takes at least a six-pack to feel anything." Martin's increased need for alcohol to achieve the same effects is an example of __________.


A: delirium tremens avoidance
B: the effects of a deteriorating liver
C: tolerance
D: withdrawal

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tolerance

Elaine's mother drank frequently during her pregnancy. At birth, Elaine's appearance was striking as she was noted to have a low nasal bridge, ear abnormalities, and a thin upper lip. What would Elaine most likely be diagnosed as having?


A: Down syndrome
B: fetal alcohol syndrome
C: Turner's syndrome
D: fetal alcohol effects

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fetal alcohol syndrome

With aversive conditioning therapy, __________.


A: the patient participates in family therapy sessions where family members confront the patient on how his or her alcohol use has harmed them
B: the patient reconstructs narratives he or she has about his or her substance use into self-denigrating narratives
C: the patient experiences the presentation of noxious stimuli paired with alcohol consumption in order to suppress drinking behavior
D: the patient makes a list of all the individuals he or she has harmed through substance abuse and constructs a plan for making amends to those that he or she has harmed

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the patient experiences the presentation of noxious stimuli paired with alcohol consumption in order to suppress drinking behavior

Some detoxification clinics are concerned about the use of tranquilizers during the alcohol detoxification phase of treatment because __________.


A: tranquilizers may physically increase nervous system activity such as heart rate and blood pressure in a person who is already experiencing a slowing of nervous system function as a consequence of chronic alcohol use
B: tranquilizers cannot be used with patients who have medical problems, which most alcoholics have
C: tranquilizers do not promote long-term recovery and may simply transfer the addiction to another substance
D: the calming effect of tranquilizers may reduce treatment motivation

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tranquilizers do not promote long-term recovery and may simply transfer the addiction to another substance

The individuals who are most likely to develop barbiturate dependency are __________.


A: middle-aged and older adults
B: adolescents and college students
C: inner-city youth
D: young-adult shift workers

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middle-aged and older adults

Excessive doses of barbiturates can be lethal because barbiturates __________.


A: increase blood pressure to the point of precipitating a stroke or heart attack
B: can cause arrhythmias of the heart
C: paralyze the brain's respiratory centers
D: interfere with the amygdala's ability to consistently relay messages to higher brain centers

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paralyze the brain's respiratory centers

Compared with opiate withdrawal, barbiturate withdrawal __________.


A: is less severe and quickly remedied
B: is more dangerous, severe, and long-lasting
C: responds well to the same types of medical withdrawal aids
D: is similar in intensity and duration

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is more dangerous, severe, and long-lasting

__________ is considered both a hallucinogen and a stimulant.


A: Marijuana
B: Ecstasy
C: A synthetic cathinone
D: LSD

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Ecstasy

A short-range effect associated with marijuana use is __________.


A: excess physical energy and agitation
B: memory dysfunction and a slowing of information processing
C: difficulties with balance and coordination
D: flashbacks

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memory dysfunction and a slowing of information processing

Which substance binds with CB1 receptors in the nervous system and can produce marijuana-like intoxication?


A: Rimonabant
B: synthetic cathimodes
C: Cannabinor
D: synthetic cannabinoids

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synthetic cannabinoids

The "skills training procedure," usually aimed at younger problem drinkers, is comprised of __________.


A: medical management of the addiction with stress-inoculation training
B: skills from psychodynamic insight-oriented treatment
C: cognitive-behavioral strategies of intervention with social-learning theory
D: social learning constructs with medical treatment

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cognitive-behavioral strategies of intervention with social-learning theory

Which of the following best describes the state of research regarding whether "abstinence only" versus learning "controlled drinking" leads to the best long-term treatment outcomes for alcohol use disorder?


A: There is no longer a debate regarding "abstinence only" versus learning "controlled drinking" in the treatment of alcohol use disorder.
B: Abstinence is the only way for people with a history of alcohol use disorder to prevent relapse.
C: Learning to engage in "controlled drinking" is associated with the best long-term treatment outcomes.
D: There is evidence that at least some percentage of people with a history of alcohol use disorder can learn to control their drinking.

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There is evidence that at least some percentage of people with a history of alcohol use disorder can learn to control their drinking.

Drug abuse and dependence are most common during __________.


A: old age
B: middle and older age
C: adolescence and young adulthood
D: middle-age

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adolescence and young adulthood

According to the Monitoring the Future Study, almost __________ percent of U.S. students have used illicit drugs one or more times by the time they finish high school.


A: 10
B: 5
C: 30
D: 50

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50

People who abuse drugs __________.


A: do not show improvements with treatment
B: show markedly different behaviors depending on the type, amount, and duration of drug use
C: can be treated using the same approaches, regardless of drug type
D: engage in specific types of behavior, making drug use easily identifiable

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show markedly different behaviors depending on the type, amount, and duration of drug use

Drugs such as __________ have been used as part of psychological therapy in treating cocaine dependence as these drugs reduce cravings and increase the likelihood of treatment compliance.


A: Antabuse
B: naltrexone and methadone
C: naloxone and buprenorphine
D: Adderall and naloxone

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naltrexone and methadone

Which of the following forms of psychological treatment has demonstrated effectiveness for the treatment of cocaine abusers?


A: systematic desensitization
B: interpersonal therapy
C: cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management
D: psychodynamic psychotherapy

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cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management

Since the passage of the Controlled Substance Act of 1970, amphetamines have been classified as a __________ drug, which means __________.


A: Schedule I; there is a lack of accepted safety for use of these drugs or other substances under medical supervision
B: Schedule IV; these drugs have a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs in Schedule III
C: Schedule III; abuse of these drugs may lead to low or moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence
D: Schedule II; these drugs have a high abuse potential and require a prescription for each purchase

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Schedule II; these drugs have a high abuse potential and require a prescription for each purchase

The brain and pituitary gland produce __________, an opium-like substance.


A: serotonin
B: dopamine
C: acetylcholine
D: endorphins

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endorphins

Which of the following can help explain the quadrupling of opioid-related overdose deaths between 1999 to 2010?


A: Humans are experiencing more health problems causing pain, which require doctors to prescribe opioids.
B: The U.S. Congress enacted the Harrison Act.
C: The amount of opioids sold to doctors and hospitals quadrupled over the same period.
D: The amount of opioids sold illegally quadrupled over the same period.

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The amount of opioids sold to doctors and hospitals quadrupled over the same period.

Researchers note that some people have difficulty experiencing pleasure from naturally occurring rewards that, to most people, are satisfying. Consequently, these individuals are compelled to seek out additional sources of pleasure through activities such as drug use. This hypothesis is called the __________.


A: dopamine deficiency hypothesis
B: reward deficiency syndrome hypothesis
C: endorphin replacement hypothesis
D: dopamine suppression hypothesis

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reward deficiency syndrome hypothesis

To reduce drug use over the long-term, treatment for heroin addiction should attempt to __________.


A: reduce withdrawal symptoms
B: reduce cravings for the drug
C: reduce tolerance
D: increase tolerance

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reduce cravings for the drug

__________ may have an anti-anxiety property; its use has been noted to be highly prevalent among those with anxiety disorders.


A: Caffeine
B: Amphetamine
C: Nicotine
D: Cocaine

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Nicotine

A change in the DSM-5 criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has resulted in expanding the population of patients who can receive this diagnosis to now include adults, which may lead to a much greater use of stimulants by adults. Concern has been expressed that __________.


A: the energy provided by the stimulant drugs can mask underlying fatigue associated with nutritional deficits, a developing health problem, or a psychological issue such as depression
B: an uptick in alcohol use disorders should occur as a result of expanded stimulant drug use
C: the expansion could lead to widespread misuse of stimulant drugs for performance enhancement and recreation use, adding to the already extensive problem of stimulant abuse
D: use of the drug by adults as a means of accomplishing more work might result in less attention paid to work-life balance

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the expansion could lead to widespread misuse of stimulant drugs for performance enhancement and recreation use, adding to the already extensive problem of stimulant abuse

Operant learning principles may explain why pathological gamblers, who may have experienced positive reinforcement with early wins, will continue to gamble in the face of loss. The gambling persistence may be sustained due to the influence of a(n) __________ schedule of reinforcement.


A: intermittent
B: ratio
C: interval
D: continuous

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intermittent

The number of pathological gamblers in the United States has been __________.


A: fluctuating in response to changes in the economy
B: increasing
C: stable for the past 30 years
D: decreasing

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increasing

Research has shown that pathological gambling often co-occurs with other disorders. Which of the following co-occurring types of disorders are associated with the most severe forms of pathological gambling?


A: substance-abuse disorders
B: personality disorders
C: mood disorders
D: schizophrenia spectrum disorders

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substance-abuse disorders

Which of the following is an accurate statement about crack cocaine use?


A: Because crack cocaine is inexpensive, users do not have the life problems seen in other addicted populations.
B: Because crack cocaine is associated with passivity and depression, chronic users are less likely to die violent deaths than other addicted populations.
C: Chronic users develop sexual dysfunctions and a disinterest in sex.
D: Research suggests that there is no fetal crack syndrome.

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Research suggests that there is no fetal crack syndrome.

Opium and its derivatives __________.


A: typically take several months to produce physiological cravings
B: cause amnesia with long-term use
C: cause withdrawal symptoms in addicts within approximately eight hours of the last dose
D: always cause near fatal withdrawal symptoms

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cause withdrawal symptoms in addicts within approximately eight hours of the last dose

According to a 2018 Monitoring the Future study, what percentage of students in the United States report using illicit drugs at least once before finishing high school?


A: 34 percent
B: 23 percent
C: 49 percent
D: 10 percent

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49 percent

Barbiturate withdrawal ________


A: is similar to withdrawal from cocaine and opium.
B: is more dangerous and long-lasting than opiate withdrawal.
C: lasts for a short time but is very painful.
D: causes psychological distress but no withdrawal symptoms.

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is more dangerous and long-lasting than opiate withdrawal.

At low levels, alcohol's effect on the brain is __________; at higher levels, alcohol's effect is __________.


A: to activate the brain's "pleasure centers"; to depress brain functioning
B: to inhibit glutamate (an excitatory neurotransmitter); to release opiumlike endorphins
C: too minimal to have an impact; massive and excitatory
D: depressive; excitatory

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to activate the brain's "pleasure centers"; to depress brain functioning

Malnutrition ________


A: is rare among alcoholics because alcohol is most commonly consumed with food.
B: only occurs when alcoholics are destitute and not able to afford to purchase food.
C: may occur in alcoholics since alcohol interferes with the body's ability to use nutrients.
D: does not occur in alcoholics since alcohol provides both calories and nutrients.

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may occur in alcoholics since alcohol interferes with the body's ability to use nutrients.

Jessa has been using __________ daily for several years which his psychologist thinks may be related to his recent experiences with extreme anxiety, depression, hallucinations, and other psychotic-like symptoms.


A: nicotine
B: methadone
C: Adderall
D: marijuana

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marijuana

Abraham and Wolf (1988) compared subjects who had used LSD 2 years earlier with a matched group of control subjects. Compared to the controls, the subjects with the history of LSD use __________.


A: had enhanced perception of upper register sound
B: demonstrated no significant differences when evaluated with perceptual and intellectual tasks
C: appeared much more sensitive to temperature and touch
D: had reduced visual sensitivity to light during dark adaptation and showed other visual problems

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had reduced visual sensitivity to light during dark adaptation and showed other visual problems

Which of the following is the most common treatment for pathological gambling?


A: antipsychotic medications
B: antidepressant medications
C: cognitive-behavioral therapy
D: Gambler's Anonymous

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cognitive-behavioral therapy

Spice, "K2," and "Blaze" are names for ________________.


A: LSD
B: Cannabis
C: MDMA
D: Synthetic cannabinoids

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Synthetic cannabinoids

Which of the following comments is indicative of a gambling disorder?


A: Paxton states, "I've tried about six times to just stop gambling, or to stay away from the off-track betting, but I love those ponies!"
B: Marcy says to her mother, "I only play blackjack when I'm in one of my euphoric manic phases, and I usually have great luck!"
C: Patty tells her friend Sandy, "I get irritable and anxious when I am playing the slot machines!"
D: Sherrod tells his wife, "I only gamble for fun, or when I'm feeling on top of the world."

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Paxton states, "I've tried about six times to just stop gambling, or to stay away from the off-track betting, but I love those ponies!"

Rates of alcoholism among Asian populations are ________ than among European peoples. This fact may be related to ________.


A: lower; religious differences in the acceptability of alcohol
B: lower; a mutant enzyme that leads to hypersensitive reactions to alcohol
C: higher; genetic differences in the ability to metabolize alcohol
D: higher; genetic differences in the sensitivity of the MCLP

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lower; a mutant enzyme that leads to hypersensitive reactions to alcohol

Randy has been dependent on alcohol for at least 10 years. Drinking has ruined his marriage, his occupational standing, and his health. If a friend told Randy that he needed to enter treatment, and Randy responded the way most alcohol dependent people do, he would probably say ________


A: You have a very good point; I need to do some serious thinking about getting treatment.
B: I have an addictive personality and without help, I will never overcome my addiction.
C: Who do you think you are attacking me? You are the one with the problem.
D: Alcohol is my enemy but I don't think I am strong enough to combat it.

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Who do you think you are attacking me? You are the one with the problem.

Explain how alcohol can be considered a drug.


ANSWER: A drug refers to any substance, such as alcohol, that causes a change in a person's body and behavior when consumed.

In your opinion, how do alcohol advertisements build pleasant expectations about consuming alcohol? How can this affect the behavior of some adolescent viewers?


ANSWER: Alcohol advertisements often portray drinking alcohol as cool or glamorous: Many advertisements show groups of friends laughing and having fun, which can cause viewers to believe that drinking alcohol is synonymous with having a good time: These pleasant expectations can cause adolescents to consume more alcohol.

Cirrhosis of the liver is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by chronic alcohol abuse.


A: TRUE
B: FALSE

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FALSE

Which of the following statements is NOT true about alcoholics?


A: Alcoholics have a strong craving for alcohol.
B: Alcoholics need increasing amounts of alcohol to feel the effects.
C: Alcoholics are able to limit the amount they drink.
D: Alcoholics go through withdrawals when they don't drink.

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C: Alcoholics are able to limit the amount they drink.

Which of the following BEST describes the relationship between alcohol and fermentation?


A: Fermentation refers to how quickly grains, fruits, and yeast break down into liquid substances, which can then be used to make alcohol.
B: Fermentation is a process that uses substances such as bacteria or yeast to change the sugars of fruits or grains into alcohol.
C: Fermentation is the process in which sugars are extracted from fruits, vegetables, or grains and then transformed into alcohol, using bacteria.
D: Fermentation is the process in which fruits and grains are mixed with an alcoholic beverage to produce a new flavor.

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B: Fermentation is a process that uses substances such as bacteria or yeast to change the sugars of fruits or grains into alcohol.

Compare the negative effects that alcohol has on one's academic performance at the high school and college level?


ANSWER: The consumption of alcohol can damage one's intellectual capacity and ability to learn: Studies have shown that high school students who drink alcohol are more likely to earn lower grades and drop out: Similarly, college students who consume alcohol generally earn lower grades than those who abstain: Also, alcohol is implicated in approximately 28% of college dropouts.

Which of the following is NOT a legal consequence of driving under the influence?


A: school expulsion
B: jail time
C: community service
D: fines

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A: school expulsion

Why is it important to have a strategy for staying alcohol-free?


ANSWER: A strategy for remaining alcohol-free involves a plan for how to handle situations that will tempt you to give in and use alcohol: By planning a strategy ahead of time, it is more likely that when a situation arises, you will be prepared to face it and refuse alcohol.

What distinguishes community-sponsored alcohol awareness programs from government-sponsored programs?


ANSWER: Community-sponsored programs are organized by nongovernmental agencies in a community such as religious institutions, businesses, or clubs: They are not supported by or affiliated with government organizations and thus generally cannot claim to represent official government policies.

Explain what distinguishes the alcohol education program Al-Anon from other programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous and the American Red Cross addiction programs.


ANSWER: Al-Anon is a nonprofit alcohol education program designed to help support the children and families of alcoholics: This goal is different from programs like Alcoholics Anonymous and the American Red Cross, where the goal is to provide support directly to individuals battling alcohol addiction: Al-Anon is an indirect education and support program meant to help foster a healthier environment, while the others are support programs meant to help people directly.

Explain what makes alcoholism a chronic, rather than acute disease.


ANSWER: Alcoholism is a chronic disease, rather than an acute disease, because it requires lifelong treatment in order to recover: However, an acute disease does not last and take as long for treatment, compared to a chronic disease.

Explain how lying can be part of a valid strategy for staying alcohol-free.


ANSWER: Lying is generally not considered appropriate, but it can be used to come up with excuses and reasons not to use alcohol: If someone offers you a drink and you do not have a excuse ready to use that happens to be true, it may be better to make up an excuse that is not true rather than give in to peer pressure and drink alcohol.

How does planning activities with friends who don't drink help you avoid situations involving alcohol?


ANSWER: all less likely to want to go somewhere alcohol is served.

An alcohol awareness program sponsored by a local police department is an example of a __________.


ANSWER: government program

A symptom of alcohol poisoning is ______ _____.


A symptom of alcohol poisoning is
A: increased excitability
B: irregular heartbeat
C: inconsistent abilities
D: increased respiration

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irregular heartbeat

Dinking five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting is called _____ _____.


Drinking five or more alcoholic drinks at a sitting is called ___________
A: binge drinking
B: alcohol abuse
C: alcohol poisoning
D: moderate drinking

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binge drinking

Most people know that drinking alcohol during pregnancy can be harmful to the developing child. A friend of yours is pregnant, and has been drinking alcohol during her pregnancy. You want to talk to her about the consequences that her baby could face because of her consumption of alcohol. What will you say to your friend to convince her to stop drinking during pregnancy?

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